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Research: Epiphone serial numbers and production estimates (19311956)

Author: Felix Wiedler (Version: October 2017)

Below a summary of my research findings regarding Epiphone's serial number (SN) systems and estimated production figures – based on the data analysis of approximately 4200 Epiphone instruments and amplifiers (SN/model pairs, documented in c. 50'000 photos). 1

Jump to chapter:

1. Epiphone SN systems 1931–1956 – an overview

2. Dating of serial numbers – revised SN/year charts

3. Understanding Epiphone's SN systems – number ranges assigned to model batches

4. Reconstructing model production data – filling SN gaps through interpolation + extrapolation

5. Examples of model production estimates

6. SNs of Epiphone amplifiers

Notes

Bibliography

1. Epiphone SN systems 1931–1956 – an overview

Epiphone's stringed instruments of the 1931–1956 period typically show a visible serial number – high-end models the same way as lower-priced instruments. Several different SN systems were used depending on instrument type and time period – generally employing consecutive, ascending numbers following the timeline of production (see detailed analysis in chapter 3):

A. Acoustic instruments 1931–1943: SN starting at 5000 and ending around 20301. (SN on label or stamped inside body.)
Estimated total production: 15302 units.

B. Acoustic instruments 1943–1956, including electric hollowbody instruments 1950–1956: SN starting at 50000 and ending around 69637. (SN on label inside body.)
Estimated total production: 19638 units.

C. Electric instruments 1935–1942: SN starting possibly around 1 and ending around 7219. (SN stamped on headstock.)
Note that the earliest electric instruments from 1935 don't bear a SN. During WW2 electric instrument production was halted.
Estimated total production (with SN): 7219 units.

D. Electric instruments 1946–1949: SN with model-specific prefix and serial suffix on most models. (SN stamped on headstock.)
Estimated total production: 2248 units. 2

E. "Special" electric guitars 1949, electric Hawaiian guitars 1950–1956: Some electric models from 1949 and all Hawaiian guitars from 1950 onwards use "special" SN systems. (SN stamped on headstock or bridge unit.) Estimated total production: 519 units. 3

Taking into account the assumed lowest and documented highest number of these SN systems, we can calculate a total production estimate of Epiphone instruments: 45535 units. 4

2. Dating of serial numbers – revised SN/year charts

My research has led to a slightly revised dating approach for Epiphone SNs. See Fig. 1 + Fig. 2 "W revised" (referring to Wiedler) vs. "F traditional" (referring to the charts published by Fisch/Fred). 5

Fig. 1: SN dating: acoustic and 1950s electric hollowbody instruments (SN systems A + B). See documented instruments in registry database.

Year
W revised – Wiedler
(approx. first SN)
F traditional – Fisch/Fred
(approx. first SN)
1931 5000      
1932 5400   5000  
1933 6200   6000  
1934 7200   7200  
1935 8400   8000  
1936 9900   10000  
1937 11400   11000  
1938 12900   12000  
1939 14400   13000  
1940 16000   14500  
1941 17350   16000  
1942 18450   17500  
1943 19400 50000 18200  
1944   50600 19000 50000
1945   52200   52000
1946   54150   54000
1947   55850   56000
1948   57100   57000
1949   58450   58000
1950   60000   59000
1951   62100   60000
1952   64100   64000
1953   65000   65000
1954   67000   67000
1955   69000   69000
1956   69500   69500

Fig. 2: SN dating: electric Hawaiian guitars and pre-1950 electric hollowbody instruments (SN systems C, D, E). See documented instruments in registry database.

Year W revised – Wiedler
(approx. first SN)
F traditional
– Fisch/Fred
1935 no SN        1
1936 1                           
250
1937 700 750
1938 1700 1500
1939 2500 2500
1940 3300 3500
1941 5000 5000
1942 6600
6500
1943 (production halted) 7500
1944 (production halted) 8300
1945 (production halted) 
1946–1949 7300    Zephyr Hawaiian
15000  Century Hawaiian
25000  Zephyr Spanish
60000  Century Spanish
75000  Zephyr DeLuxe
85000  Zephyr DeLuxe Cutaway
100000 Console

1949 3000, 4000  Kent Spanish
75      Kent Hawaiian, Century Hawaiian
100    Alkire Eharp

1950–1956 9000  Electric Hawaiian


3. Understanding Epiphone's SN systems – number ranges assigned to model batches

Epiphone's SN systems generally appear to follow this pattern: a range of consecutive, ascending SNs are found on instruments of one single model; a subsequent range of SNs appears on instruments of another single model; and so on (see example Fig. 3).

Fig. 3: Sample excerpt from Registry database.

SN Model
54919 Emperor
54920 Emperor
54923 Emperor
54926 Emperor
54927 Emperor
54928 Emperor
54931 Emperor
54935 Emperor
54937 Emperor
5494x Emperor
54957 Emperor
54958 Emperor
54959 Emperor
54964 Emperor
54967 Emperor
54969 Emperor
54985 Zenith
55010 Zenith
55016 Zenith
55037 Zenith
55043 Zenith
55048 Zenith
55079 Spartan
55087 Spartan
55092 Spartan
55116 Spartan
55124 Spartan
55127 Spartan
55148 Triumph
55162 Triumph
55167 Triumph
55168 Triumph
55178 Triumph
55190 Triumph
55198 Triumph
55201 Triumph
55204 Triumph
55209 Triumph
55210 Triumph
55229 Triumph
55230 Triumph
55235 Triumph
55242 Blackstone
55244 Blackstone
55245 Blackstone
55247 Blackstone
55250 Blackstone
55262 Blackstone
55267 Blackstone
55293 Blackstone
55297 Blackstone
55301 Blackstone
55314 Blackstone
55323 Blackstone

My understanding of this pattern is that these model-specific SN ranges correspond to production runs – i.e. a run or batch of a model was assigned SNs of a consecutive number range. The subsequent SN range was then assigned to the next following production run of a different model, and so on. This means: Epiphone's ascending SNs reflect a chronology of production. 6

Note that batch sizes varied considerably – from possibly a single instrument up to a hundred or more instruments of the same model in a consecutive SN range. 7

4. Reconstructing model production data filling SN gaps through interpolation + extrapolation

Based on these findings that ranges of consecutive SNs were assigned to batches of the same model, we can extend our research: To reconstructing missing model production data – by using interpolation and extrapolation algorithms on our SN data.

Interpolation methods enable us to "fill in" undocumented SN/model pairs within assumed batches – i.e. ranges of SNs exclusively assigned to one model (see example in Fig. 4).

Fig. 4: Interpolation of missing SN/model pairs within an assumed batch/SN range of the same model (example). Note that in many cases the very first and last SNs of a batch cannot be determined as long as there are SN gaps to the adjacent batch of a different model. However all missing numbers between the lowest and highest documented SNs of an assumed model batch can be "interpolated" i.e. tentatively identified (with high probability) to also be examples of that same model.

SN Model Data source
54957 Emperor Registry
54958 Emperor Registry
54959 Emperor Registry
54960 Emperor interpolated
54961 Emperor interpolated
54962 Emperor interpolated
54963 Emperor interpolated
54964 Emperor Registry
54965 Emperor interpolated
54966 Emperor interpolated
54967 Emperor Registry
54968 Emperor interpolated
54969 Emperor Registry

Applying this interpolation method to my registry data leads to some remarkable results: While my documented SN/model pairs currently represent about 9% of the estimated total instrument production, the addition of interpolated SN/model pairs boosts this ratio to 55% (see Fig. 6 for an excerpt).

According to our theory, the figures presented in column "Registry+interpolated" can be seen as "minimum" production estimates for the respective models, i.e. how many were "at least" produced. I consider these "minimum" estimates as pretty reliable, although they are not to be mistaken as total production estimates.

However, the data also allows for calculating rough estimates of total production numbers for each model and period – by employing approximation (extrapolation) methods. Extrapolation algorithms tentatively attribute undocumented SN/model pairs in gaps between two (assumed) adjacent model batches – see example in Fig. 5.

Fig. 5: Extrapolation of SN/model pairs between two assumed model batches (example): The 6 undocumented SNs 55236–55241 are likely to include models of the previous batch (=Triumph) and/or subsequent batch (=Blackstone), although their relative distribution is not known. Our applied extrapolation algorithm equally assigns 50% of the missing SNs to the previous model and 50% to the subsequent model – in this example 3 Triumphs and 3 Blackstones. Note: Theoretically, such SN gaps may include a small batch of a third model.

SN Model Data source
55229
Triumph
Registry
55230 Triumph Registry
55231 Triumph interpolated
55232 Triumph interpolated
55233 Triumph interpolated
55234 Triumph interpolated
55235 Triumph Registry
55236 Triumph extrapolated
55237 Triumph extrapolated
55238 Triumph extrapolated
55239 Blackstone extrapolated
55240 Blackstone extrapolated
55241 Blackstone extrapolated
55242 Blackstone Registry
55243 Blackstone interpolated
55244 Blackstone Registry
55245
Blackstone
Registry

Note: These extrapolated totals in the right column of Fig. 6 are ballpark figures and do not claim to be exact. But they give a rough idea – e.g. if total production of a model was likely in the dozens, in the hundreds, or in the thousands.

5. Examples of model production estimates


Below some examples of estimates for certain models/production periods.

Fig. 6: Example of estimated totals: acoustic archtop guitars per model 1931–1956, plus totals of other instrument types. Model totals include 4-string versions (data as of 19 Nov 2018).

Acoustic archtops
1931
–1956
Registry 

Registry+ interpolated 
Estim. total
extrapolated
Blackstone                           
210 1714 3094
Broadway 216 1099 2102
Broadway Cutaway/Regent 17 44 137
Byron 28 228 452
DeLuxe 189 639 1405
DeLuxe Cutaway/Regent 24 47 150
Devon 67 350 760
Emperor 199 623 906
Emperor Cutaway/Regent 41 74 251
Olympic 237 2373 3968
Ritz 32 265 600
Royal 21 98 237
Spartan 71 312 1043
Triumph 465 2808 4528
Triumph Cutaway/Regent 111 534 905
Tudor 3 3 51*
Zenith 353 2970 5310
Sorrentino/Howard/Ideal 23 68 277
Early Tenor/Plectrum 46 88 570
Total Archtops 2353 14337 26742
Total Mandolins 80 301 1054
Total Flattops 154 659 2240
Total El Hollowb '50s 540 3062 4905
Total Ac + El Hollowb '50s 3127
18359 34940
Percent Ac + El Hollowb '50s 8.9%
52.7%
100%
El Hollowb pre-1950 341 2906 4055**
El Hawaiian all 458 4090 6540**
Total all 3926
25355 45535
Percent all 8.6% 55.7% 100%

The chart in Fig. 6 provides a summary of Epiphone's stringed instrument production totals 1931–1956 (without acoustic banjos, basses 8, and amplifiers). The data in a nutshell:

Fig. 7: Example of estimated yearly production figures of a model: pre-war Emperor, including Soloist model (data as of 11 Nov 2018).

Emperor
Year (approx.)
Registry 

Registry+ interpolated 
Estim. total extrapolated 
Batches

1934               



1935 2 3 28 1              
1936 15 46 81 2
1937 10 22 29 1
1938 5 34 49 1
1939 26 88 112 3
1940 11 20 53 2 +Soloist
1941 10 23 33 1
1942



1943



1944



Total pre-war
79 236 383 11
Percent            20.6% 61.6% 100%

The chart in Fig. 7 shows an example of model-related data on a timeline – for the pre-war Emperor:

Fig. 8: Example of all acoustic models in a time period: year 1947 = SN range 55850–57099 (data as of 16 Nov 2018).

1947
(W year)
Reg 

Reg+ interp
Batches
 
Est. total extrapol Extrapol
 
Percent
reg+int
Blackstone  26 437 3 488 51          88.6%
Broadway 17 142 1 150 8             95.0%
DeLuxe 18 104 2 127 23 81.9%
Spartan 13 85 2 108 27 79.1%
Triumph 37 326 2 361 35 90.4%
Total
111 1094 10 1232 138 88.8%

The chart in Fig. 8 shows an example of a comparatively high interpolation ratio due to a low number of large model batches:
These are just examples. Based on our registry data, similar charts and conclusions can be made for any model or time period.

Although these estimates are still somewhat speculative and approximate at best, they are certainly based on a much larger data sample of higher quality than that on which previous research was based. And the estimates will keep getting more precise as the database of documented SN/model pairs is growing.

6. SNs of Epiphone amplifiers

Epiphone used several different SN systems for their amplifiers over the years (see Fig. 9). (SN stamped on logo plate or control plate.)

The amps' SN systems appear to be less straightforward than those used for the stringed instruments. We observe that in some periods certain SN ranges appear to have been reserved for certain models – with ascending numbers, however not always applied in strictly chronological order. Therefore, our dating of amps is mainly based on features (e.g. EIA date codes of electronic components). 9

Furthermore, it is questionable wether all numbers in the respective SN ranges were indeed assigned to manufactured units – making it unfeasible to calculate production figures by interpolation or extrapolation methods (as done with stringed instruments). 10

For these reasons I don't present total production estimates for Epiphone amplifiers at this stage of my research.

Fig. 9: SN dating: amplifiers. Note model-specific SN ranges in some years. See documented amps in registry database.

Year SN / amplifier models (approx first SN)
1935 no SN Electar
1936        Electar, Model C, Model M
1937 700    Model C, Model M
1938 1700  Model C, Model M, Super, 
3000  Model EL, Model M
4000  Model M
1939 1900  Century, Coronet
5000  Zephyr
1940 6000  Century, Coronet
5500  Zephyr
1941 7000  Zephyr
9000  Century, Coronet
1942 8200  Zephyr
10000 Century, Coronet
1943–1945 (production halted)
1946 8500  Zephyr, Dreadnaught
10000 Century
1947 10000 Zephyr
12000 Century
1948–1954 30000 Dreadnaught, Zephyr
35000
Zephyr
10000 Century
40000 Century, Zephyr
2000   Asta
1955–1956 1000   Century, Zephyr, Dreadnaught

General note: My estimated SN dating and production figures are approximations that are subject to correction as new evidence material surfaces.


Notes:

1) Our research includes acoustic and electric instruments of the guitar and mandolin families. Epiphone banjos and bass viols (which had their own SN systems each) are out of the scope of my research. Recommended links: Epiphone Upright Bass Research project (see note 7) and Banjo Hangout – Dating an Epiphone Banjo from the 1925-1930s era.

2) When electric model production was relaunched in 1946, new ranges of SNs were applied to most models – with numbers consisting of a model-specific prefix (2–3 digits) and a serial suffix (3 digits, ascending consecutive numbers starting with 000): Unlike with the other SN systems, these new SN ranges were used concurrently, i.e. reflecting the timeline of production only within each model. This system allows for pretty precise estimates of production figures per model in this period: the highest (known) SN suffix of a model indicating the total number produced – summing up to a total of 2248 units.
An exception (and not included in this figure) is the Zephyr Hawaiian model which carried on with the pre-war SN system (see C), starting around SN 7300 in 1946 and ending around SN 7908 in 1949 (=approx. 609 units in total).

3) The year 1949 brought significant changes to Epiphone's model lineup and likewise to their SN systems. Early examples of the newly introduced Kent Spanish model have "special" SNs in the 3000s and 4000s (stamped on headstock), before switching to SN system B by 1950. Documented examples of the new Kent Hawaiian show "special" SNs in the 75 to 171 range (stamped on headstock). In the early 1950s all electric Hawaiian guitars switched to SNs in the 9000s (stamped on bridge unit). Due to the yet unclear logic behind the applied "special" SN systems, production totals for these models are difficult to estimate and therefore very approximate.
Also included in this group is the Alkire Eharp, an electric Hawaiian model custom built for and exclusively sold by musician Eddie Alkire in the late 1940s; the model had its own SN system starting around 100.

4) Generally, our production estimates are based on the assumption that every number in the respective SN ranges was assigned to a manufactured instrument. Theoretically there is a possibility that certain numbers may have been omitted and not used for whatever reason. Certainty in this matter will grow as the gaps of undocumented SNs in our Registry continue to be filled with data.

5) Fisch, J. and L.B. Fred (1992), Epiphone: The House of Stathopoulo, p.291ff.
Fisch/Fred's "traditional" Epiphone SN dating charts presented slightly revised data originally published in Tom Wheeler's important book: Wheeler, T. (1982), American Guitars: An Illustrated History, p.40. Wheeler had based his Epiphone SN dating on inventory records of a music store – Pettey Music Co in Pittsburgh PA. This fact suggests that Wheeler's SN/year chart related to the date when an Epiphone instrument was present at that store – which typically must have been at least a few months after it had entered production at the factory.
In contrast, our "W” date always refers to the estimated date when the respective Epiphone instrument/SN entered production – i.e. NOT the date it was finished, left the factory, or was sold by a store. It can be assumed that shipping/sale dates of individual instruments from the same production period (or even the same batch) could vary considerably – i.e. some selling quickly, while others remained unsold for months or longer (see note 6).
This (partly) explains the differences to the "traditional" dating, which ultimately relied on Tom Wheeler’s research based on inventory lists of one single retail store.

6) Epiphone's SN systems appear to be similar in concept to the SNs of C.F. Martin & Co: instruments within a (typically model-specific) production batch were assigned a consecutive SN range – i.e. the ascending SNs reflect the chronology of instruments entering production as part of model batches. Which means: SNs are not inherently related to the date of shipping to a customer/dealer (see note 5).
In contrast, Gibson's SNs (pre-WW2) generally appear to relate to the completion/shipping date of an individual instrument: i.e. Gibson instruments of the same production batch may bear SNs which are sometimes wider apart – indicating some examples shipped quickly (receiving a lower SN), while other examples remained uncompleted for some time and shipped significantly later (receiving a higher SN); for marking/identifying instruments of the same production batch Gibson used a second numbering system – the Factory Order Number (FON); see Joe Spann's invaluable research published in: Spann, J. E. (2011), Spann's Guide To Gibson 1902-1941.

7) Note that in our text the term "batch" is used for a series of Epiphone instruments within a SN range exclusively assigned to one single model, although technically speaking a larger SN series of one model may actually consist of several consecutive production batches of the same model.

8) The Epiphone Upright Bass Research Project by Wendy Staley is documenting Epiphone basses and their SN systems. According to the research, an estimated total of approximately 3087 basses was produced during the 1940–1956 period, with SNs assigned to the following production years: 9) The somewhat irregular and partly confusing SN scheme for amps started around 1938, with the higher amplifier models (Model M/EL, Zephyr, Dreadnaught) switching to SNs stamped on their control plates, while the lower models (Century, Coronet) continued to receive SNs on (pre-)stamped Electar logo plates as before. Subsequently until WW2, it appears that specific SN ranges were reserved for each group – distinguished by the initial digit(s) of the 4–5 digit numbers: After WW2, the Zephyr/Dreadnaught group started to run into SN ranges (9xxx, 10xxx) which previously had been reserved for the Century/Coronet group. By 1948 new SN ranges with model-code prefix were introduced (however applied with exceptions to the rule):
In the 1950s, the amp models went through further changes, and so did the SN systems.

10) Example: there is only one amplifier documented with a SN in the entire 4000s range (SN 4042: Model M AC-DC).
In an earlier stage of our research we assumed that the earliest electric stringed instruments and amps used one shared SN system (as opposed to two separate systems covering the same number range): This theory was based on the fact that there wasn't any example of an identical SN on units of each type documented – until 2 exceptions surfaced (SN 1342: Model M Spanish + Model M Amplifier; SN 5220: Model M Hawaiian + Zephyr Amplifier).
We currently favor a theory that electric stringed instruments and amps rather used separate SN systems, although we may revise this  again as new evidence surfaces. Note that a shared SN system would significantly change (i.e. reduce) our production estimates for some 1930–40s electric models.


Bibliography

Epiphone:

Carter, Walter, and Jimi Stratton. Epiphone: The Complete History. Hal Leonard Corporation, 1995.

Carter, Walter. The Epiphone Guitar Book: A Complete History. Hal Leonard Corporation, 2012.

Fisch, Jim, and L. B. Fred. Epiphone: The House of Stathopoulo. Amsco Publications, 1996.

General or other makers:

Gruhn, George, and Walter Carter. Acoustic guitars and other fretted instruments: a photographic history. GPI Books, 1993.

Gruhn, George, and Walter Carter. Gruhn's guide to vintage guitars: an identification guide for American fretted instruments. GPI Books, 1991.

Gruhn, George, and Walter Carter. Gruhn's guide to vintage guitars: an identification guide for American fretted instruments. Updated and revised 3rd edition. Hal Leonard Corporation, 2010.

Johnston, Richard, and Dick Boak. Martin guitars: A history. Vol. 1. Hal Leonard Corporation, 2008.

Johnston, Richard, and Dick Boak. Martin Guitars: A Technical Reference. Vol. 2. Hal Leonard Corporation, 2009.

Spann, Joseph E. Spann's Guide to Gibson 1902-1941. Centerstream Publications, 2011.

Wheeler, Tom. American guitars: an illustrated history. Harper & Row, 1982.


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